Note: The months of ministry after Jesus's baptism and before He commenced His ministry in Galilee are recorded only in John's gospel. In other words, the narrative of John 1:19 fits entirely between Matthew 4:11 and Matthew 4:12, between Mark 1:13 and Mark 1:14, and between Luke 4:13 and Luke 4:14. Jesus spent those months in Judea, for a time ministering alongside John the Baptist. Throughout those months Jesus primary focus was to gather to Himself the multitude who had obeyed and embraced the message preached by John.
Scripture: John 1:19-28
Notes: Notice the four chronological notes in John 1:29, John 1:35, John 1:43; and John 2:1. The point of reference (i.e., the day from which the "next day" of 1:29 is computed) is the event of John 1:19-28.
Scripture: John 1:29-34
Notes: This is the actual beginning of Jesus's "public ministry." It is here that Jesus for the first time appears to men as the Messiah.
Questions/Observations: John's identification of Jesus as "the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world" is remarkably insightful and important.
Scripture: John 1:35-42
Notes: This passage is best taken as representative of Jesus's ministry throughout the months summarized here. In other words, Jesus spends these months gathering to Himself the disciples of John the Baptist.
Scripture: John 1:43-51
Notes: John 1:43 speaks of Jesus "wanting to go to Galilee." This is not the commencement of His Galilean ministry (which comes some months later); rather, it is a brief visit to Cana for a wedding feast.
Questions/Observations: Jesus's ability to know Nathanael before meeting him is clearly an expression of omniscience; that is, it is supernatural. And yet, by John's nomenclature, it is not a "sign" (cf. John 2:11). What is the significance of that distinction?
Scripture: John 2:1-11
Notes: I believe the "third day" of John 2:1 is best taken as the third day after the day mentioned in John 1:43. Thus, by Jewish reckoning there are a total of five days narrated in this passage, but the narrative skips from the third day (1:43) to the fifth day (2:1, the 3rd day after the day of 1:43). The unrecorded day was a day of travel from Judea to Galilee.
Scripture: John 2:12
Notes: This visit to Capernaum seems to have been in anticipation of a permanent move (cf. Matthew 4:13).
Adapted from the Life of Christ study notes of Dr. Doug Bookman, professor of New Testament Exposition at Shepherds Theological Seminary (used by permission).